U.S. Citizenship Requirements

Becoming a United States citizen is a dream for many around the world. It’s a path that promises rights, freedoms, and opportunities. If you are considering applying for U.S. citizenship, understanding the eligibility requirements is your first step. This guide outlines the fundamental criteria set by the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) for those aspiring to become U.S. citizens.

Eligibility Criteria

To apply for U.S. citizenship through naturalization, applicants must meet the following key requirements:

1. Age

  • Minimum Age Requirement: You must be at least 18 years old to apply.

2. Permanent Residency

  • Green Card Holder: You must have been a permanent resident (green card holder) for at least 5 years, or 3 years if filing as the spouse of a U.S. citizen.

3. Continuous Residence

  • Residence in the U.S.: You must have lived in the U.S. for at least 5 years before applying, or 3 years if married to a U.S. citizen.
  • Physical Presence: You must have been physically present in the U.S. for at least 30 months within the 5-year period (or 18 months within the 3-year period for spouses of U.S. citizens).

4. Residency in a USCIS District or State

  • Residence in State or District: You must have lived for at least 3 months in the state or USCIS district where you apply.

5. Good Moral Character

  • Moral Character: You must demonstrate good moral character, meaning no serious criminal history, for at least 5 years before applying (or 3 years for spouses of U.S. citizens).

6. English Language Proficiency

  • Language Skills: You must demonstrate an understanding of the English language, including the ability to read, write, and speak basic English.

7. Knowledge of U.S. History and Government

  • Civics Test: You must pass a civics test covering important U.S. history and government topics.

8. Attachment to the U.S. Constitution

  • Oath of Allegiance: You must be willing to take the Oath of Allegiance to the United States.

Application Process

The application process involves several steps, including:

  1. Filling out Form N-400: The Application for Naturalization.
  2. Submitting the Form: Along with the necessary documentation and fees.
  3. Biometrics Appointment: If applicable, you may be required to attend a biometrics appointment for fingerprinting.
  4. Interview: An interview with a USCIS officer where you will also take the English and civics tests.
  5. Decision: USCIS will make a decision on your application.
  6. Oath Ceremony: If approved, you will take the Oath of Allegiance at a naturalization ceremony.

Exceptions and Accommodations

USCIS provides exceptions and accommodations for certain applicants:

  • Age-Related Exceptions: Applicants over 55 years of age and who have been permanent residents for at least 15 years may not have to meet the English requirement.
  • Disability Exceptions: Those with a physical or developmental disability or a mental impairment may be exempt from certain requirements.


Meeting the citizenship requirements is a significant part of your journey to becoming a U.S. citizen. It’s a process that demands preparation, attention to detail, and an understanding of the responsibilities and privileges of U.S. citizenship.

Disclaimer: The information provided in this guide is intended for general informational purposes only and is not legal advice. Laws and procedures regarding U.S. citizenship are subject to change, and the specifics of an individual’s situation may require a different approach. We strongly recommend consulting with a qualified immigration attorney or the official United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) for the most accurate and personalized advice.

Citizenship Application